Also, the flow TECHNIQUES, Dale Andreatta, Ph. the selection process should include a variety of social factors as well as the technical A WAPI could also be used in nonsolar conditions, saving much energy when people are told to boil their water, heat far in excess of what is needed to pasteurize either water or milk. Traditional fuels can be used to pasteurize water, but on sunny days solar energy can be used as well. Microbes in the upper portion will have been inactivated before those in the bottom portion, where the WAPI is located (SAFAPOUR & METCALF 1999). Heating up the water to 50-60°C for one hour has the same effect. Engineering Design Guide and Environment (EDGE), Rochester Institute of Technology, SAFAPOUR, N. METCALF, R.H. Much of this document is taken from: RECENT ADVANCES IN DEVICES FOR THE HEAT PASTEURIZATION OF DRINKING It can be designed with two memory shapes: straight for below 65°C and circular for above 65 °C (149 °F). Once in place the drain siphon should be left in place for the life of the puddle. The temperatures which cause approximately a 1-log decrease in viability within 1 min are 55°C for protozoan cysts; 60°C for E. coli, enteric bacteria, and rotavirus; and 65°C for hepatitis A virus (3, 5, 7-9, 16). about $65. point reduces the energy required by at least 50%, the fuel savings offered by this simple provided people with a safe water supply. 1. Robert H. Metcalf, Proceedings of the 29th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering top layer of plastic doesn't seem to be a problem, though if one gets a lot of In order to produce more water PAX World Service produced a flow-through unit which If one went with a flame-heated system one would require a short piece of metal tubing, The flat plate unit allows between to the cold water, thus preheating the incoming contaminated water by lowering the Alternatively to boiling, solar energy might have a role to play in improving water quality in those regions that enjoy a hot, sunny climate (JOYCE et al. He also discusses flow-through pasteurization devices and strategies to pasteurize water with the waste heat from a wood-burning cookstove. Compared to other energy sources it can save fuel costs, but not labour costs, which are still relatively high (BURCH & THOMAS 1998). This site is inspired by Wikipedia and provides information on solar pasteurisation with photos, videos, sketches and further references. The water produced per dollar of long term Contrary to what many people believe, it is not necessary to boil water to make it safe WATER IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD, main Replacing The WAPI has a stainless steel washer around it to keep it at the bottom of the container, which is the coolest location when solar heating water. 48, 1989. Refugees at the Touloum Refugee Camp use the sun to make their water safe to drink. size water container, costs about $3, and is available from One end of this tubing is connected to a thermostatic valve and the other to a selection of the right system should be based on local conditions. To test a water source for human or animal fecal contamination, it is best to test for the bacterium Escherichia coli, which is always present in human faeces at a level of about one hundred million E. coli per gram. In addition, the water at the bottom of the black jar is often 5 to 10°C cooler than the water at the top of the jar. contaminated container. a thermostatic valve with housing, and a heat exchanger. A solar water pasteurizer can provide clean drinking without noxious air pollution from wood fires. However, solar box cookers were designed for cooking and are awkward to use for water pasteurization. SODIS reduces the need for traditional energy sources such as firewood and kerosene/gas. This document gives a short introduction to the pasteurisation technique in general, and compares it with other water disinfection methods. least 50%, the fuel savings offered by this simple device is considerable. The cooker may be an insulated box made of wood, cardboard, plastic, or woven straw, with reflective panels to concentrate sunlight onto the water container. 400% increase in water output. Once this cool water reaches the valve, the valve shuts and the pasteurization process begins anew.

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